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TechnoTrend Glossar



The reception of TV signals on certain end user devices that are equipped with an authorization (usually a smartcard). Programs, offers, services, information can be accessed purposefully.


Technology for Internet access via telephone with data rates up to 25 Mbit/s.
Application Programming InterfaceAn open API allows for applications on the Set Top Box (like e.g. EPG) also of other providers.
Satellite system that is operated by the Socitete Europeane of the Satellite (Luxembourg. The Astra family (1A-G) already comprises 7 satellites at orbit position 19,2° East for the transmission of analogue and digital radio and television channels. Besides foreign programs nearly all German-language programs can be received via analogue and digital satellite antenna that needs to have a diameter of 60 cm.
 Back Channel
In order to allow for interactive television and Pay-TV offers, direct communication between provider and consumer is needed. The back channel is currently still realized via the normal telephone circuit.
Basis encoding
Encoded emission of TV programs. The addressability of the user is to be established. The question of copyrights can be clearly clarified. In such way, new business models for TV operators can be illustrated for the benefit of the viewer.
Colloquial for data (transmission) rate. Volume of data transmissible on a data connection in 1 sec.
Bouquet Association Table. Displays a group of different TV channels for the bundling to a multiplex and/or to an offer for the TV user
Simultaneous emission of contents to any, unlimited number of receivers.
Broadcast operator.
Conditional Access System. Controls the access of subscribers to certain programs, service offers etc., e.g. Irdeto, Viaccess, Nagra, Cryptoworks, Conax
Conditional Access module. A module that is inserted into the receiver in order to be able to decode encrypted signals with an activated additional card.

Frequency 3,7 GHz – 4,2 GHz

(En)coder and decoder. Procedure for the data reduction of digital video material, e.g. MPEG-4 or XviD.

Common Interface
CI. Interface of the receiver for a CA-module.

Conditional Access
Access to an offer that is subject to a condition (e.g. a subscription). By the encoding of contents only authorized users have access to the program content.

Digital Audio Broadcasting is a system for the transmission of radio programs.
Data Transmission Rate
Quantity of data transmissible on a connection in a certain period of time, usually indicated in bits per second (Bit/s). The data rate considerably affects the image quality of digital television programs. Data rates from 5 to 6 Mbit/s correspond to an image quality of analogue television programs.

Electronic mechanism which reconstructs viewable pictures out of data-reduced, stored video material.
Digital compression
In order to reduce the data quantity of digital signals, mathematical algorithms are applied and irrelevant picture information will be filtered out.
Digital Satellite Equipment Control. A procedure to control the switch between different satellites, e.g. Astra and Eutelsat. Can also be used for the control of multi-user systems.
Digital Multimedia Broadcasting. Standard for the transmission of video data to mobile end-user devices on the basis of the digital radio standards DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting).

Dolby Digital, AC-3
Multi-channel audio format which transmits six channels. Frequently abbreviated by DD.

DRM ManagementComplex solution for the management of rights in all types of contents, that controls, by the application of special hard and/or software, who is allowed to use a content, how often and in which period of time, and by which end-user devices this is done. 
Digital Video Broadcasting. Transmission standard of digital television via cable, satellite or terrestrial.
The Electronic Program Guide of Set Top Boxes is both user surface and program guide at the same time. By means of the remote control, several functions can be activated via many buttons. In addition, it provides background information to all programs of the current and the following day. (On condition that the broadcasting station is providing this information!)
This European satellite operator possesses a large number of satellites in the universe. They transmit numerous foreign programs. The Hotbird satellites important for Germany are located 13°East.
Forward Error Correction. Redundancy information is added to digital signals. The aim is to recognize and fix typical errors that occur on the transmission route. 

The geographical area the satellite radiates. Within this footprint the reception of the satellite is possible without any problems if you observe the stated size of the satellite dish.

Free-to-Air (FTA)
Digital receiver without conditional access module for the reception of free radio and television programs.

Free-to-Air television, without monthly fee, commercial or public television (but with TV licensing fee).
In approx. 36.000 km altitude above the equator, the satellites move with the same speed as the earth rotates around its own axis and thus they always have the same position in the sky.
High Definition Multimedia Interface. The HDMI connection transmits the complete bandwidth of digital video and audio data. The advantage of the HDMI connection lies within the fact that during the data transmission no quality losses occur because the HDMI works without data compression and analogue/digital converter.
High Definition Television. The resolution of HDTV is up to 5 times higher in relation to standard definition television (SDTV). Television with a 16:9 wide screen format. This allows a displaying of video material with considerably more details, better image definition and more brilliant colours. The European system operates with 1.080 lines à 1,920 pixels each, the American-Japanese system with 720 lines à 1.280 pixels.
Home or teleshopping enables the consumer to shop from home via PC or via television by means of a Set Top Box.
Interactive television
The viewers are invited to directly take part in a transmission by calls or SMS

Internet Protocol. Package-based data transmission procedure for networks.

Internet Protocol Television. Television programs broadcasted via Internet. This is real broadcasting.

Integrated Receiver Decoder. Set Top Box with integrated decoder for Pay TV offers.

Low Noise Block converter. The LNB is the reception head in the focus of a parabolic antenna. It intensifies and converts the satellite signals that can be following processed by the satellite receiver.

Multiple Channel Per Carrier. Transmission system that uses only one transponder for several channels. (SCPC)

Multimedia Home Platform. Standard middleware defined in the DVB standard for interactive applications on Set Top Boxes and other digital end-user devices (Java based).


Motion Picture Experts Group. MPEG-1 (data rate 1.5 Mbit/s), MPEG-2 (data rate 100 Mbit/s) and MPEG-4. MPEG compresses audio and video signals in digital quality above the level of analogue television. The processing of increased data quantity of HDTV signals is made possible by the improved standard MPEG 4. For the moment, the standard digital television signal (SDTV) is and remains compressed MPEG-2 standard.

A data stream that contains one or more services within a physical channel. 
A collection of MPEG-2 multiplex data streams that are emitted via a reception system, e.g. all digital channels in a special cable system.
Near Video On Demand. Time-shifted emission of the same information (e.g. a movie is shown each 15 min) via several channels or via one channel in the multiplex system in order to reduce the access time.
On-Screen-Display. This means additional information on the screen (e.g. program data, setup menus). Information can be recalled in an uncomplicated way.

Over-The-Air. Allows for the update of the existing operating system (firmware), e.g. via satellite.

Television against direct payment.
Pay-Per-View (PPV)
The viewer is only paying for the emission that he is really watching.
Peripheral Component Interconnect. A standard for the connection of peripheral devices with the chip set of a processor. The users usually find several PCI slots in the PC periphery, (where PCI is used particularly), e.g. for network interface cards, modems or sound cards.
Packed Identification, packages contained in the transport stream, need to be marked. The identification is a separate code consisting of four digits, separated by audio and video. Thus, a transcription e.g. of two SCPC signals is prevented.

Program Specific information. Important information for the receiver that allows for demulit plexing, e.g. PIDÕs, access information and private data.

Kind of data supply. Push data are transferred to the receiver without his effort. However pull data are only transferred on explicit demand.

Personal Video Recording. Hard disk-based video recorder with memory capacity and additional service functions such as EPG, time-shift television, skip of advertisement. Point-to-point transmission of data to a certain addressee.
Quadratur Phase Shift Keying is a modulation procedure for digital television programs received over satellite. In cable systems, other demands are made on the transmission of digital signals. Therefore, another modulation procedure is necessary, the Quadratur Amplitude Modulation. With QAM, digital signals are shown by a combination of four phases and four amplitudes. The data are illustrated in the resulting matrix

A receiver receives a digital TV transmission and processes and intensifies the signal, and is able to control a screen.

The RF-modulator of the satellite receiver converts audio and video signals into an antenna signal. Hereby the connection of older television sets without scart connection becomes possible via the normal antenna cable and the antenna input at your television set.
 RS-232C Interface
The operating system of a receiver can be updated by your service specialist via the RS-232C interface without opening the equipment. A null modem cable and the appropriate software are needed therefore. In addition, program lists can be transferred via data interface.
The European connecting standard for TV and video devices. SCART stands for Syndicat des Constructeurs d’Appareils Radiorécepteurs et Téléviseurs which means “Union of manufacturers of radio and television devices”.
Term from the satellite transmission technology. SCPC means that an own transmission frequency per program signal is needed. Advantage: several individual programs from different geographical signal sources can be transferred at the same time on a satellite transmission channel, without having to be corded to one package. Disadvantage: It is not very economic.
Standard Definition Television. Standard television with low picture resolution in the standards PAL or NTSC.
Settings mean the channel-program list stored in a satellite receiver. Herein, all information which is necessary for the reception of the respective channel is contained. With a setting editor and a program for the input and the readout of the settings it is possible to edit individual information on the PC. It is also possible to download complete arranged settings from the internet and to store them on your own receiver via the serial interface RS-232C.

In general a receiver terminal for digital television.

Simultaneous broadcast of a channel, both in analogue and digital form.

Broadcast of a signal with multiple, different encoding information simultaneously.
The card, that looks like a telephone or money card, contains a chip, which communicates both the identification of the owner to the CA-module and the information which programs are activated.
Transmission of video material to the receiver in almost real time.TeleshoppingSale of goods or services via television programs.
Sale of goods or services via television programs.
Broadcast of television or radio channels, services via radio frequencies.
Combination of Transmitter and Responder. Electronic mechanism that receives and transmits a signal automatically. TV-satellites receive a signal and radiate it into a large transmission area.
Triple Play
Term for the offer of telephone, internet and TV via a single „way “. Telephone or cable companies offer this via their infrastructure.
Abbreviation for „Universal SerialBus“, a standard for the connection of accessory devices to the PC like e.g. mouse, keyboard or scanner. 
Transmission of data to a certain addressee. Also point-to-point connection.  
 Universal LNB
Receiving unit at the satellite antenna, which receives both the 11 GHz range and the 12 GHz range used for digital transmissions. The universal LNB is necessary for the operation of a D-box. The switch is made by the 22 kHz signal.
Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line. Technology for internet access via telephone circuits with data rates up to 100 Mbit/s.
Supply of videos to a user on its explicit demand and to any time determined by the user.

Voice-over-IP. Transfer of telephone calls via Internet or broadband cable.


Wireless Local Area Network. Radio technology for the broadband network connection of devices.

The search of the viewer for a special program offer to satisfy him in his current situation for the switch of the channel.
Simple receiver without CA module. 




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